Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Cognitive Modeling and Brain Computation, Institute for Cognitive Science Studies of Iran, Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty member, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

3 Faculty member, Department of Cognitive Psychology, Institute for Cognitive Science Studies of Iran, Tehran, Iran


The brain’s free energy principle (FEP), and active inference, proposed by Karl Friston is a model that, based on the Bayesian inference, shows uncertainly how the concepts are generated based on the stimuli perceived by the human. In this model, it is assumed that the concepts exist in a hidden and real form in the environment, and the agent should identify and encode the concepts in his brain through the indirect perception of the stimuli of these concepts. This process takes place based on the Bayesian inference in the declarative or procedural real concepts (concepts in the environment) generation requiring the agent’s actions and perceptions by the active inference process. Declarative concepts are concepts that do not require any action on the environment to learn and are learned directly through the transfer of knowledge. But procedural concepts are concepts that require the selection of different actions on the environment to learn (such as driving). In the current study, objectification or construction of abstract concepts (concepts that do not exist in the environment but are formulated by the agent through the reception of environmental stimuli in his brain) is based on active inference. In the proposed model, which is an extension to the active inference model, the policies must be identified or generated by the agent because these policies do not already exist. The identification or construction of these policies to generate or objectify the abstract concepts would mean knowledge generation and learning how the concepts are generated.


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